From a biological perspective, humans differ in the speed they age, and this may manifest in both mental and physical health disparities. The discrepancy between an individual’s biological and chronological age of the brain (“brain age gap”) can be assessed by applying machine learning techniques to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Here, we examined the links between brain age gap and a broad ...
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
14 (2022), 791222, 16 S.
| Philippe Jawinski, Sebastian Markett, Johanna Drewelies, Sandra Düzel, Ilja Demuth, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Gert G. Wagner, Denis Gerstorf, Ulman Lindenberger, Christian Gaser, Simone Kühn
The IAB’s Sample of Integrated Labour Market Biographies (SIAB) and the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) are the two data sets most commonly used to analyze wage inequality in Germany. While the SIAB is based on administrative reports by employers to the social security system, the SOEP is a survey data set in which respondents self-report their wages. Both data sources have their specific advantages and ...
Journal for Labour Market Research
57 (2023), 1, Art. 8, 18 S.
| Heiko Stüber, Markus M. Grabka, Daniel D. Schnitzlein
Our paper analyzes the role of public employment agencies in job matching, in particular the eﬀects of the restructuring of the Federal Employment Agency in Germany (Hartz III labor market reform) for aggregate matching and unemployment. Based on two microeconomic datasets, we show that the market share of the Federal Employment Agency as job intermediary declined after the Hartz reforms. We propose ...
SOEPpapers 1185 | Christian Merkl, Timo Sauerbier
The 2022 natural gas price spikes across Europe raised concerns regarding their distributional consequences. This paper investigates the distributional effect of price increases between and, in particular, within different income groups in Germany, accounting for different determinants of gas expenditures. The study finds that low-income households are affected the most by the gas price increase. Low-income ...
175 (2023), 113472
| Mats Kröger, Maximilian Longmuir, Karsten Neuhoff, Franziska Schütze
What is the impact of housing upgrades on occupant health? Although economists and policymakers are certain about the health implications of housing upgrades, empirical evidence is largely missing or else only based on small-scale experiments in developing countries. This study provides the first population-representative quasi-experimental estimates based on a large-scale refurbishment program that ...
SOEPpapers 1186 | Steffen Künn, Juan Palacios
To determine how wives’ and husbands’ retirement options affect their spouses’ (and their own) labour supply decisions, we exploit (early) retirement cutoffs by way of a regression discontinuity design. Several German pension reforms since the early 1990s have gradually raised women’s retirement age from 60 to 65, but also increased ages for several early retirement pathways affecting both sexes. We ...
SOEPpapers 1187 | Hamed M. Moghadam, Patrick A. Puhani, Joanna Tyrowicz
An accident, a chronic illness, or even a congenital disability are common causes of a loss of earning capacity. Although the loss of earned income is insured through the reduced earning capacity pension in the statutory pension insurance scheme, the amount received is so low that people with reduced earning capacity are at very high risk of poverty and there is a higher-than-average likelihood of ...
DIW Weekly Report 13 (2023), 17/18, 123-129| Sebastian Becker, Annica Gehlen, Johannes Geyer, Peter Haan
It is often argued that institutionalized after-school care (ASC) can benefit children lacking adequate homework support at home and, hence, foster equality of opportunity. However, despite considerable policy interest, it is unclear whether these afternoon programs are beneficial for child development and if selection into them is efficient, i.e., whether students benefiting most from the programs ...
DIW Discussion Paper 2006 | Laura Schmitz
I use the universe of tax returns in Germany and a regression kink design to estimate the impact of the benefit amount available to high-earning women after their first childbirth on subsequent within-couple earnings inequality. Lower benefit amounts result in a reduced earnings gap that persists beyond the benefit period for at least nine years after the birth. The longer-term impacts are driven by ...
DIW Discussion Paper 2016 | Sevrin Waights
Objective: For an effective control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with vaccines, most people in a population need to be vaccinated. It is thus important to know how to inform the public with reference to individual preferences–while also acknowledging the societal preference to encourage vaccinations. According to the health care standard of informed decision-making, a comparison of the benefits and harms ...
17 (2022), 9, e0274186, 19 S.
| Felix G. Rebitschek, Christin Ellerman, Mirjam A. Jenny, Nico A. Siegel, Christian Spinner, Gert G. Wagner