Innovation potential is not only an elementary precondition for economic efficiency and affluence for nations, but also for regions. Measured on R&D employment in the manufacturing industry, regional concentration has continued to remain high since 1998. The regions of Munich and Stuttgart lead by a wide margin. However, the study shows that not only strong regions benefit from structural change but also less favored regions. Conversely, for regions with a leading edge, there is no guarantee of a future leadership role. Urbanized regions have primarily gained. It is noticeable that - apart from exceptions - East Germany lags behind as a research location.